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Jack-Well Construction

Jack-Well structures are used for collecting water from the surface sources such as river, lake, and reservoir and conveying it further to the water treatment plant. These structures are masonry or concrete structures and provides relatively clean water, free from pollution, sand and objectionable floating material.


The varieties of water pipes include large diameter main pipes, which supply entire towns, smaller branch lines that supply a street or group of buildings, or small diameter pipes located within individual buildings.

Water Treatment Plant

Water treatment is any process that improves the quality of water to make it more acceptable for a specific end-use. The end use may be drinking, industrial water supply, irrigation, river flow maintenance, water recreation or many other uses, including being safely returned to the environment.


In an age of rapid transportation bridges are very important. They allow for roads and railroads to cross over otherwise impassable obstacles such as rivers or other roads.


A canal is a manmade waterway.Canals is also used to transport water for irrigation and other human uses. Canals are used exclusively to transport water for drinking, agriculture, and hydroelectric power.

Underground Tank

"Underground storage tank” means any one or combination of tanks including connected underground pipes that is used to contain regulated substances, and the volume of which including the volume of underground pipes is 10 percent or more beneath the surface of the ground.

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It is an intake structure.

Intake structures are used for collecting water from the surface sources such as river, lake, and reservoir and conveying it further to the water treatment plant. These structures are masonry or concrete structures and provides relatively clean water, free from pollution, sand and objectionable floating material.


Wet intake

Dry intake

Wet Intake Structures:

1) It is a type of intake tower in which the water level is practically the same as the level of the sources of supply.

2) It is sometimes known as Jack well and is most commonly used.

Dry Intake Structures:

1) In case of dry intake there is no water in the water tower.

2) Water enters through entry port directly into the conveying pipes.

3) It is simply used for the operation of valves etc.



Pipeline transport is the mode of transportation of goods or material through a pipe.

Liquids and gases are transported in pipelines and any chemically stable substance can be sent through a pipelinePipelines exist for the transport of crude and refined petroleum, fuels - such as oil, natural gas and biofuels - and other fluids including sewage, slurry,water and beer.

Pipelines are useful for transporting water for drinking or irrigation over long distances when it needs to move over hills or where canals or channels are poor choices due to considerations of evaporation, pollution, or environmental impact.

Pneumatic tubes using compressed air can be used to transport solid capsules.

Pipelines carry liquids (crude oil, water, gasoline), gases (natural gas) slurries (coal, mining ores) and air suspended solids (powders and the like in mass production plants.



Drinking water supplies in the United States are among the safest in the world. However, even in the U.S., drinking water sources can become contaminated, causing sickness and disease from waterborne germs, such as Cryptosporidium, E. coli, Hepatitis A, Giardia intestinalis, and other pathogens.

Drinking water sources are subject to contamination and require appropriate treatment to remove disease-causing agents. Public drinking water systems use various methods of water treatment to provide safe drinking water for their communities. Today, the most common steps in water treatment used by community water systems (mainly surface water treatment) include:

Coagulation and Flocculation :

Coagulation and flocculation are often the first steps in water treatment. Chemicals with a positive charge are added to the water. The positive charge of these chemicals neutralizes the negative charge of dirt and other dissolved particles in the water. When this occurs, the particles bind with the chemicals and form larger particles, called floc.

Sedimentation :

During sedimentation, floc settles to the bottom of the water supply, due to its weight. This settling process is called sedimentation.

Filtration :

Once the floc has settled to the bottom of the water supply, the clear water on top will pass through filters of varying compositions (sand, gravel, and charcoal) and pore sizes, in order to remove dissolved particles, such as dust, parasites, bacteria, viruses, and chemicals.

Disinfection :

After the water has been filtered, a disinfectant (for example, chlorine, chloramine) may be added in order to kill any remaining parasites, bacteria, and viruses, and to protect the water from germs when it is piped to homes and businesses.



Bridge Construction Planning :

Bridge construction tends to involve huge projects that encompass the utilization of skills related to several engineering disciplines including geology, civil, electrical, mechanical, and computer sciences. Therefore, integrating the efforts of all involved must be meticulous. The initial plans are prepared regarding the project, including the characteristics of the desired bridge, the site details, and the requirement of resources. The bridge design will be determined by the type of bridge being constructed. The main types of the bridges are beam, arch, truss, cantilever, and suspension. The beam bridge is one of the popular types. Bridges can also be categorized by the planned use, like road and rail bridge, pedestrian pavement, material to be used like steel or concrete, and fixed or moveable. Moveable bridges are constructed when the ship height may be more than the bridge floor. In such situations, the road has the capability to be lifted or pivoted, to permit marine traffic movement under it.

Bridge Foundation :

Construction of the foundations is the first step toward building a bridge. This process involves detailed geotechnical investigations of the bridge site. The type of bridge foundation has to be selected, such as the well foundation, pile foundation, and the opened foundation. Each foundation is suitable for specific soil strata, and the desired bridge characteristics. The soil characteristics will determine the load bearing capacity, and other important parameters. The superstructure is basically designed in accordance with the technical requirements, aesthetic reasons, and the construction methodology. Excavation required for the foundations may need to be executed to sizeable depths, involving hard ground, before the solid rocks are reached. Engineering feats will be involved to avoid water, and prevent collapse of the diggings. Tunnels specifically may be subjected to sudden failures.

Bridge Construction Equipment :

Heavy equipment will be used extensively during the bridge construction including bulldozers, excavators, asphalt mixers, formworks, and fabrication equipment. The construction and other equipment needs to be identified thoroughly, according to their capability and other desired functions. The foundation and the superstructure design will need to be considered. This expensive equipment should not remain idle, and must be used cautiously to obtain optimum advantage.



A canal is a man-made waterway. Canals are built for a variety of uses including irrigation, land drainage, urban water supply, hydroelectric power generation, and transportation of cargo and people. Navigation canals may be shallow facilities designed for barge traffic, or they may be deep enough to accommodate ocean-going ships. To conserve water and to facilitate two-way travel, canals are built level. If there is a difference in elevation between the ends of a canal, the channel is built as a series of level sections linked by locks. A lock is a rectangular chamber with gates at both ends; with both gates closed, the water level within the lock can be adjusted to match the canal water level on either side. Thus, a vessel entering the lock can be raised or lowered in order to enter the next level canal section. Alternative types of locks are occasionally built to traverse large elevation changes; the entire lock chamber, containing boats floating on water, is hoisted vertically or moved up an inclined section of rail line.

Raw Materials :

Waterproof linings keep a canal's water from seeping into the ground. For many years, the best choice was puddle, a mixture of sand, clay, and water that dried to a waterproof state. Modern materials and additives that are more durable include concrete, fly ash, bentonite, bituminous materials, and plastic sheeting.Locks are usually made of concrete, occasionally lined with steel. If construction of the lock exposes bedrock, the floor need not be lined. The gates are made by welding together steel plates and reinforcement beams. The vertical edges of the gates are fitted with effective sealing materials such as white oak. In 1999, a French company developed lock gates made of glass-fiber reinforced plastic laminate mounted in stainless steel frames.

Design :

Early canals followed the most level surface route possible because large-scale earth-moving was so difficult and expensive. Better excavation equipment and lock construction capabilities permit the construction of shorter, more direct canal routes. Because of geographic obstacles, sections of some canals are built in tunnels or on aqueducts (water-carrying bridges). It is important to fill and empty a lock chamber while producing minimal water turbulence. Modern designs place sluices in the gate sills or in the chamber's floor or walls. A lock may also be equipped with a submerged bubbler that releases air below the gate closure area; the resulting gentle turbulence keeps the area clear of debris that might prevent the gate from sealing properly. Various gate designs are available for modern locks, and different types may be used on the upstream and downstream ends of a single lock. Miter gates are one of the most popular choices. Another common choice is the Tainter gate, a curved plate that rotates vertically. In this efficient design, which is used for valves in water-transfer culverts as well as main lock gates, water pressure actually assists in the gate's rotation. Flat gates that slide up, sideways, or down into the lock floor are other options, as are flat gates that are hinged at the bottom and curved gates that rotate horizontally into wall recesses.



Why Choose an Underground Water Tank?

1.In the event of a water shortage, a concrete water tank has you covered – particular where provisions may be even more modest, if you live in a remote location, for example

2.You can easily transport water from elsewhere to store it, or collect rainwater for use

3.Water tanks can be distributed anywhere across Australia, from New South Wales, to Sydney, Perth, Victoria or Brisbane

4.Make use of rainwater and your water bills will be lower in time

5.You’ll also be protecting the environment, by reducing the need for dams or destination plants.

Underground Water Tanks: Some Popular Uses

1.They dramatically alleviate the risk of flooding, which will be good news to business owners who’d like to protect their company and its premises. When you consider that a staggering $314 million is the estimated average annual cost of floods in Australia, it makes perfect sense to have an underground water tank installed on site

2.They protect against bushfires, helping to save lives. Underground water tanks are designed to withstand transport from 5kpa up to 26kpa, and concrete water tanks can handle concrete slabs from 100mm thick to 200mm thick

3.They provide healthier drinking water, making them ideal for domestic or commercial use

4.We’ve mentioned this once, but we’ll mention it again: water tanks are extremely cost effective – so why wouldn’t you consider opting for one?

5.Dangerous goods and chemicals can be effectively stored in a water tank – and as a business owner, you have a duty of care to ensure maximum safety in the workplace.